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Useful Links

Journal Scan

Voluntary HIV testing as part of routine medical care--Massachusetts, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2004 Jun 25;53(24):523-6. Includes Commentary by Arthur Ammann, MD.

Monthly antibiotic chemoprophylaxis and incidence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV-1 infection in Kenyan sex workers: a randomized controlled trial. Kaul R, Kimani J, Nagelkerke NJ, Fonck K, Ngugi EN, Keli F, MacDonald KS, Maclean IW, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M, Ronald AR, Moses S, . JAMA 2004 Jun 2;291(21):2555-62. Includes Commentary by Arthur Ammann, MD.

Male circumcision and risk of HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections in India. Reynolds SJ, Shepherd ME, Risbud AR, Gangakhedkar RR, Brookmeyer RS, Divekar AD, Mehendale SM, Bollinger RC. Lancet 2004 Mar 27;363(9414):1039-40.


Prophylaxis Following Nonoccupational Exposure to HIV
Michelle Roland, MD, University of California San Francisco. HIV InSite Knowledge Base chapter, February 2004.
Indications for and Use of Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) Following Sexual Assault: A Two-Day Workshop
Partial conference program, Pangaea Global AIDS Foundation, Global Strategies for HIV Prevention; November 2002. [PowerPoint presentations]

Occupational Exposure
Rani Lewis. In: A Guide to Clinical Care of Women with HIV (Chapter VIII), Jean R. Anderson, editor. HIV/AIDS Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001.

Prevention of HIV
Chia Wang and Connie Celum. In: A Guide to Clinical Care of Women with HIV/AIDS (Chapter III), Jean R. Anderson, editor. HIV/AIDS Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001.

Guidelines and Best Practices

Family Planning/HIV Integration: Technical Guidance for USAID-Supported Field Programs
USAID, 2003. [PDF, 252K]
The Safety and Feasibility of Female Condom Reuse: Report of a WHO Consultation
WHO, January 28-29, 2002. [PDF, 193K] Document includes a draft protocol for preparing female condoms when they are reused.
Clinical Management of Rape Survivors: A Guide to the Development of Protocols for Use in Refugee and Internally Displaced Person Situations
WHO and UNHCR, 2002. [PDF, 633K]Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis
U.S. Public Health Service. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, June 29, 2001.The Female Condom: A Guide for Planning and Programming
WHO, UNAIDS 2000. [PDF, 2.4MB]
Management of Possible Sexual, Injecting-Drug-Use, or Other Nonoccupational Exposure to HIV, Including Considerations Related to Antiretroviral Therapy
CDC, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, September 25, 1998.
Guidelines for Health Education and Risk Reduction Activities
Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases/HIV Prevention, National Center for Prevention Services, CDC, April 1, 1995.
Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health-Care Settings
CDC, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, August 21,1987.

Policy Analyses and Reports

Women and AIDS: A Growing Challenge
UNAIDS, July 6, 2004. [PDF, 133K] Also available in Spanish, French, and Russian.HIV Prevention
UNAIDS, July 6, 2004. [PDF, 109K] Also available in Spanish, French, and Russian.
The Global Impact of HIV/AIDS on Youth
Jennifer Kates, Alyssa Wilson, Todd Summers. Kaiser Family Foundation, July 2004.HIV Prevention in the Era of Expanded Treatment Access
Global HIV Prevention Working Group, Kaiser Family Foundation, June 10, 2004.
Forced Sexual Relations Among Married Young Women in Developing Countries
Population Council, June 2004. [PDF, 157K] See also The Adverse Health and Social Outcomes Of Sexual Coercion: Experiences of Young Women in Developing Countries. [PDF, 160K]AIDS , Sex & Reproduction: Integrating HIV/AIDS and Sexual and Reproductive Health into Policies, Programmes and Services
Share-Net, World Population Foundation, Stop AIDS Now, June 2004. [PDF, 133K]
Women and HIV/AIDS: Confronting the Crisis
Partner Reduction in HIV Prevention: The Neglected Middle Child of "ABC"
James D. Shelton, Daniel T. Halperin, Vinand Nantulya, Malcolm Potts, Helene D. Gayle, K. K. Holmes. USAID, Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, University of California at Berkeley, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, University of Washington, May 21, 2003. [PDF, 108K]
Access to HIV Prevention: Closing the Gap
Global HIV Prevention Working Group, May 2003. [PDF, 869K]
Women's Lack of Control Over STI Risks Drives Microbicide Search
Heidi Brown, Population Reference Bureau, April 2003.
The Female Condom: Women Control STI Protection
Heidi Brown, Population Reference Bureau, March 2003.
Microbicides: What They Are and Why We Need Them
Arin Farrington, Health and Sexuality, February 25, 2003.
Integrating Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission into Existing Maternal, Child, and Reproductive Health Programs
Ellen Israel, Mary Kroeger. Pathfinder International, January 2003. [PDF, 321K]
Cross-generational and Transactional Sexual Relations in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence of Behavior and Implications for Negotiating Safer Sexual Practices
Nancy Luke and Kathleen M. Kurz. ICRW and Population Services International's AIDSMark Project, September 2002. [PDF, 1.8MB]
Behavior Change Communication (BCC) for HIV/AIDS: A Strategic Framework
Family Health International, September 2002. [PDF, 527K]
Special Report: Women and AIDS Vaccines
IIAVI Report, July - September 2001.
Issue Update no. 3116, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, May 2001. [PDF, 663K]Female Condom Research Briefs
Family Health International, 2001. Also in French and Spanish.
Evaluation of the Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS and STDs in Women Through the Integration of STD/HIV/AIDS Services into Maternal Child Health/Family Planning Facilities in 5 Urban Districts
A. Malcom, K. Sunkutu, E. Sinyiza, C. Mutungwa, and S. Lendon, UNICEF, 2001.Violence Against Women and HIV/AIDS: Setting the Research Agenda
Gender and Women's Health, World Health Organisation, October 2000. [PDF, 745K]The Female Condom: Dynamics of Use in Urban Zimbabwe
D. Kerrigan, S. Mobley, N. Rutenberg, A. Fisher, and E. Weiss. Horizons/Population Council, 2000. [PDF, 1.54MB]Partners For Change: Enlisting Men in HIV/AIDS Prevention
United Nations Population Fund, 2000. [PDF, 311K]
HIV, Men and the Impact on Women in Africa
Panos/UNAIDS, 2000. This site contains links to a series of reports on men and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa.
HIV, STDs and Infertility: Past Trends and Current Monitoring Problems
MEASURE Evaluation. UNAIDS, CDC, May 1999. [PDF, 177K]The Impact of Violence Against Women on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Rachel Jewkes, MD, South African Medical Research Council. International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1999.

Program Management

How to Integrate Gender into HIV/AIDS Programs: Using Lessons Learned from USAID and Partner Organizations
Interagency Gender Working Group, USAID. May 2004. [PDF, 725K]
How to Create an Effective Communication Project
Family Health International, 2002. [PDF, 179K]
Advocacy Guide for HIV/AIDS
Jeremy Hamand. International Planned Parenthood Federation, June 2001. [PDF, 543K]
A Practical Approach to Gender-Based Violence: A Programme Guide for Health Care Providers and Managers
Lynne Stevens. UNFPA, 2001. [PDF, 1.49MB]

Research Articles

Reproduction Decision Making for Couples Affected by HIV: A Review of the Literature
Alice C. Thornton, Frank Romanelli, Jana D. Collins. Topics in HIV Medicine, International AIDS Society -- USA, May/June 2004. [PDF, 113K]

Training Materials

Peer-to-Peer HIV & AIDS Peer Educators Trainers' Guide for IMPACT Implementing Agencies
Family Health International/Nigeria IMPACT Project, 2003. [PDF, 1.43MB]
Female Condom and Dual Protection: Training for Community-Based Distributors and Peer Educators
Margaret Marshall, Kate Adjei-Sakyi, Centre for Development and Population Activities, August 2003.Family planning: let women choose!
Women's Health Exchange, Issue No. 10, 2002. [PDF, 24MB] Also includes a training activity.
Improving women's sexual lives: facts about health are not enough
Women's Health Exchange, Issue No. 8, 2001. [PDF, 274K] Also includes a training activity.Zimbabwe HIV Prevention Counseling Training Manual (excerpts)
AIDSMark Project/Family Health International, USAID, October 1999. Reproduced with permission.
Infection Prevention: A Reference Booklet for Health Care Providers
EngenderHealth, 1999. [PDF, 1MB] Also available in French [PDF, 1MB] and Spanish [PDF, 654K]. See also the EngenderHealth's online course.
Helping women reduce their risk of HIV
Women's Health Exchange, Issue No. 4, 1999. [PDF, 991K]Fundamentals of HIV Prevention: A Training Program (Participant's Manual)
Academy for Educational Development for the CDC, November 1998. [PDF, 816K]Prevent Infection
Diana Beck, Sandra Tebben Buffington, Jeanne McDermott, and Karen Berney. In: Healthy Mother and Healthy Newborn Care: A Reference Guide for Care Givers, American College of Nurse-Midwives/MotherCare, 1998. [PDF, 598K]

Community Education Materials

Teen Talk: Living with HIV
Lori Wiener, Lauren V. Wood, Karen D'Angelo. Medical Illness Counseling Center, May 2004. [PDF, 5.5MB]
Myths and Facts About HIV/AIDS: A Practical Guide to Prevention, Health and Life
Global Strategies for HIV Prevention, 2004. [PDF, 612K] Also available in French, Hausa, and Swahili. See also the PowerPoint version for India, created in partnership with Sahaya International, Inc., February 2004.
HIV, Health, and Your Community: A Guide for Action
Reuben Granich, MD, MPH, and Jonathan Mermin, MD, MPH. The Hesperian Foundation, 2001. [PDF, 5.82MB]How Can We Start Our Own HIV Project?
Reuben Granich and Jonathan Mermin. In: HIV, Health and Your Community (Chapter 12). The Hesperian Foundation, 1999. [PDF, 346K] Reproduced with permission.

Other Documents

The Glion Call to Action on Family Planning and HIV/AIDS in Women and Children
WHO, May 2004. [PDF, 27K]
Women, Poverty, and HIV: Science to Action
Women's Global Health Imperative Conference, San Francisco, March 8, 2004. [RealAudio with slides]

Glossary of HIV/AIDS Terms
A glossary of HIV/AIDS terms compiled by the Center for HIV Information editorial staff, 2004.
AIDS Has a Woman's Face: Gender and Power--New Strategies for HIV Prevention
Women's Global Health Imperative Conference, San Francisco, March 7, 2003. [RealAudio with slides]


Alan Guttmacher Institute
 Nonprofit focused on sexual and reproductive health research, policy analysis, and public education. Publishes periodic reports on microbicides.
Alliance for Microbicide Development
 A consortium of representatives from biopharmaceutical companies, nonprofit research institutions, and representatives from advocacy groups, dedicated to the development of topical microbicides for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections, importantly including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Association of Nutrition Service Agencies (ANSA)
 A U.S.-based organization that provides technical information and assistance to support community-based, HIV/AIDS, nutrition programs. The site contains nutrition fact sheets and guidelines.
Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (UCSF)
 The mission of the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) is to conduct rigorous theory-based research that will have maximum impact on the theory, practice, and policy of AIDS prevention. This includes collaboration with scientists from developing countries to conduct AIDS prevention research.

Center for Health and Gender Equity
 A U.S.-based international reproductive health and rights organization.
Female Health Company
 Manufacturer of the FC Female Condom. Site includes instructions on use and information on the company's partnership with UNAIDS. Periodically issues an electronic newsletter.

Global Coalition on Women and AIDS
 An initiative of activists, government representatives, community workers, and celebrities, that seeks to stimulate concrete action to improve the daily lives of women and girls. The coalition focuses on preventing new HIV infections among women and girls, promoting equal access to HIV care and treatment, accelerating microbicides research, protecting women's property and inheritance rights, and reducing violence against women.
Global Microbicide Project
 Helps develop new microbicidal agents against STDs, including HIV, that specifically address the needs and perspectives of women.
 HIV InSite: Prevention Links
 Links to hundreds of Web sites on 14 key HIV prevention topics.
 International AIDS Vaccine Initiative
 The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative is a global organization working to speed the development and distribution of preventive AIDS vaccines. Search for a trial.
Microbicides 2004
 London, UK, March 28-31, 2004. Official conference site.
Reproductive Health Technologies Project
 Provides educational materials and technical assistance to individuals and organizations advocating for microbicides.
Reuse of the FC Female Condom
 Web site provides information on the safety of reuse of the FC female condom. Site contains WHO guidelines on reuse of female condoms, key documents, a discussion group, and case studies.
The Well Project
 A woman-specific HIV Internet resource providing information on the latest treatments, therapies, and clinical trials, as well as advocacy tools, slide presentations, a forum for discussion groups, and project start-up guides.
 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention
 Collaborates with the HIV Prevention Trials Network on microbicide research. Publications include guidance documents and research updates.
University of Zimbabwe-UCSF Collaborative Program in Women's Health
 HPTN site; undertakes research on microbicides, condom promotion, hormonal contraceptives and increased risk of HIV/STDs, and microfinancing and skills training for adolescent girls as an alternative to compensated sex. Also offers support groups for women with HIV.
Women's Global Health Imperative
 A global research center based at the University of California San Francisco that provides scientific leadership to improve the ability of women and girls to protect themselves from HIV infection.

International sites

Australian Red Cross

The Brazilian STI/AIDS Program

Canadian Int Development Agency (CIDA)

European Union AIDS Task Force


Family Health International FHI



Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (Germany) (GTZ)

Global Health Action

Institut Pasteur 

International AIDS Society

International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (IAPAC)

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

International Labor Organization (ILO)

International Union Against TB and Lung Disease (IUATLD)

Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA)

Royal Netherlands Chemical Society (KNCV)

Save the Children UK

Society for Family Health

Swedish International Dev. Agency (SIDA)

Training Programs in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET)

Medicins Sans Frontiers (MSF)

National Agency for Research on AIDS (France)

Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)

Population Services International (PSI)

Population Council/Horizons

Protection Maternelle et Infantile (PMI)

UK Development (DFID)

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)



United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

World Bank

World Health Organization (WHO)

U.S. sites

Advocates for Youth


American Association of Blood Banks

American Center for International Labor Solidarity (ACILS)

American Red Cross (ARC)

Assoc of Minority Health Professions Schools (AMHPS)

Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL)


The Carter Center

College of American Pathologists (CAP)

Minority Health Professions Foundation (MHPF)

National Alliance of State and Territorial AIDS Directors (NASTAD)

NIH Fogarty Center

Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH)

Research Triangle Institute

Rockefeller Foundation

The Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (PAF)

The Turner Foundation

U.S. government sites

Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)

International Cooperative Admin Services System (ICASS)

International Experience and Technical Assistance Program (IETA)

National Center for Infectious Diseases, 
Division of AIDS, STD, and TB Laboratory Research (DASTLR)

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute

National Institutes of Health (NIH)

NIH Fogarty Center

Peace Corps


PHPPO Division of Laboratory Systems

U.S Agency for International Development (USAID)

USAID AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP)

USAID Synergy

U.S. Chamber of Commerce

U.S. Department of Defense

U.S. Department of State

White House Office of National AIDS Policy (ONAP)

University sites

Emory University

Georgia State University

Johns Hopkins University

Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs


Makerere University (Uganda)

Muhimbili University

Public Heath Schools without Walls (PHSWOWs)


UNC/MEASURES Project (North Carolina)

University of California-SF

University of Ghent

University of Nairobi

University of South Africa

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